The Factories Act, 1948
Objective and Applicability of the Factories Act – The main objective of the Factories Act, 1948 is to ensure a safe environment for the persons working inside a factory. The Act is applicable to any premises involved in manufacturing process engaging 10 or more people with the aid of power or 20 or more people without the aid of power.
Prohibition of Children in the Factory – No person below the age of 14 can be allowed to work in the factory. Any person between the ages of 14-18 years working in the factory has to carry a certificate of fitness and cannot work for more than 4 and half hours excluding in night shift.
Working Hours in the Factory – A person can work up to 48 hours in a week and not more than 9 hours daily. Upon completion of 5 hours of continuous work, 30 minutes break is to be given to the person working. Women cannot work in a factory between 7 PM to 6 AM.
Overtime Wages – Overtime wages should be double of the normal rate of wages.
Leave with Wages – A person is entitled to 1 day leave per 20 days of work, provided he worked for 240 days in a year. Up to 30 days leave can be accumulated under the Factories Act, 1948.
Basic Facilities and Safety Measures – The employer shall ensure in such a way that sufficient safety measure is provided to the workers while working with machines. Basic hygiene facilities like cleanliness, drinking water, ventilation, proper lighting, dust control, washing facility, first aid, canteen, crèches, shelters, labour office etc. are essential in a factory.
Penal Provisions – The maximum punishment for any kind of violation of the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed thereunder is 2 years of imprisonment or fine up to Rs.1,00,000/-